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Introduction

The majority of the major vehicle manufacturers are bringing to market or developing in the next 24 months, EV's or Plug-in-Hybrid EV's (PHEV) for release to consumers. Electric Vehicles will therefore form a significant proportion of the world's mode of transport over the next 10 years and will require a significant Charging Infrastructure.

There are multiple reasons for this move to vehicle electrification, however the two principle drivers are; Projected Oil Price rises and Climate Change. Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of these two issues.

The New Zealand Parliament, Parliamentary Research released a paper in October 2010 titled "The Next Oil Shock?". It states "Low-cost reserves of oil are being rapidly exhausted, forcing oil companies to turn to more expensive sources of oil. This replacement of low-cost sources of oil with higher-costs sources is driving the price of oil higher". The paper draws on many UK and American references and research papers.

The Next Oil Shock also states "There is a risk that the world economy may be at the start of a cycle of supply crunches leading to price spikes and recessions, followed by recoveries leading to supply crunches". The basis for this projection is the price of Oil. Brent Crude Oil peaked at USD147 in July 2008 and dropped to USD54.04 in February 2009. It is currently trading at USD80 - 118 per barrel and could be close to its next peak. The report indicates that in 2012 or soon after 2012, there may be another price spike which could trigger another recession.

The English "Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change" 2006 sets out the overall environmental challenge. Globally as a result of the growing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, climate

change threatens severe consequences including flooding, drought, population displacement and ecosystem destruction. The challenge requires all sectors, including road transport, to make an urgent and substantial progress in reducing CO2 emissions. As a result of this report and many more, England is a world leader in the adoption of EVs and Charging Infrastructure.

The British Chancellor of the Exchequer commissioned "The King Review of low carbon cars" in 2008 to examine vehicle and fuel technologies which over the next 25 years could help decarbonise road transport, particularly cars.

The British Committee on Climate Change 2009 and 2011 (CCC) have set a target for the UK in 2030 and beyond, requiring some 60% of new cars sold in 2030 to be EVs and PHEVs. To date the recommendations but not all the detail for the 4th Carbon Budget has been accepted by the British Parliament in June 2011.

Professor Julia King presented in Melbourne in July 2011. Her Electricity System conclusion was "EV's work with a plan to decarbonise generation and can be beneficial to the system, especially one with intermittent renewables. A smart grid is needed for the most benefit"

New Zealand renewable electricity, comprised 74% of the total electricity generation in 2010, making the reason for New Zealand to move into EVs very compelling.

Vehicles

In 1899 and 1900 in America, Electric Cars outsold any other vehicle.

In the 1990s, General Motors and Toyota produced EVs. GM and Toyota decided for a number of reasons to discontinue production. Sony covered this situation with the film "Who Killed the Electric Car"

In the 2000s, new entrant EV manufacturers started emerging as the barriers to entry with an EV are lower than an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE - Petrol or Diesel) vehicles. New entrants included; BYD, Tesla, Reva, Think, and Karma Fisker.

BYD are a large Chinese cellphone battery manufacturer supplying a large proportion of the world's requirements. BYD purchased a car manufacturer in China with a view to manufacturing EVs. Warren Buffet subsequently bought approximately 10% of BYD.

Tesla was co-founded by Elon Musk. Elon Musk originally developed software start-ups Zip2 and Paypal. Having sold these he formed Tesla who view themselves as a mobility solutions provider rather than a car manufacturer.

With time, volumes will increase providing economies of scale. With this will come price reductions. An ICE vehicle has an engine and gearbox which collectively comprise thousands of moving components. An EV, by comparison, has an electric motor(s) which comprise only a handful of parts.

Technology is improving with time. Batteries contribute to almost half the cost of the vehicles and are heavy, requiring additional energy to move the additional mass. Batteries are the least developed component in the car. In the past two years, the sizes of batteries have halved and the capacity has doubled. Cost and weight will improve with time.

Established vehicle manufacturers and new entrant EV manufacturers are now bringing to market a selection of EVs and PHEVs.

New Zealand Emissions

The Ministry of Economic Development's figure below, outlines the Total
Consumer Energy by sector for 2010. Transport represents 38.5% of the Total Energy consumed for 2010.

The Ministry for the Environment report, New Zealand's Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990 - 2009 states; "In 2009, Road Transport contributed 12,205.6 Gg (38.5 per cent) to total CO2 emissions"

The Ministry of Transport produced The New Zealand Vehicle Fleet Data Spreadsheet in Feb 2011

Transport represents the largest proportion of energy consumed in New Zealand and the Light Fleet represent the largest proportion of CO2 emissions in New Zealands fleet. Addressing the Light Fleet through electricifaction, will assist New Zealand significantly in reducing our dependence on Oil and reducing Carbon emissions.

Future Market

Europe and America are providing subsidies for both vehicles and charging infrastructure. New Zealand does not provide subsidises and is therefore likely to lag these markets by a year or two as vehicle manufacturers in particular are attracted to supplying markets that have subsidises.

Transpower and Orion commissioned the New Zealand Centre for Advanced Engineering (CAENZ) to produce a report titled "Electric Vehicles - Impacts on New Zealand's Electricity System". This report was completed in December 2010 and released publically in June 2011.

The CAENZ report states that "Electricity demand from electric vehicles is estimated to be no more than 8% of total demand by 2039 for the most optimistic scenario of electric vehicle uptake investigated." (8% represents 4,500 GWh pa)

The CAENZ report indicates that by 2020 there will be between 100,000 - 200,000 EV's, by 2030 there will be 250,000 - 800,000 EV's and by 2040 there will be 900,000 - 1,900,000 EV's in New Zealand.

The Ministry of Transport (MoT) are forecasting figures in their Fleet Model nearer the lower of the CAENZ estimates. MoT expectations are that by 2040 there will be 1Millon EV's / HEV's / PHEV's.

The Ministry of Economic Development (MED) in 2009, forecast by 2020 there will be between 20,000 - 30,000 EV's and PHEVs in the New Zealand Fleet and by 2020 there will be 220,000 - 440,000. By 2040 the MED are forecasting 440,000 - 1,100,000.

JuicePoint History
Juice Point was founded in 2009 by Mark Yates. His vision is an integrated EV Smart Charging infrastructure that meets both EV
users and the Electricity industries requirements and constraints.
EV Smart Chargers are sourced from Elektromotive. In May 2011,
Pike Research in the US ranked Elektromotive, a European
supplier, in the top 3 suppliers of EV Charging Infrastructure in the world market. Elektromotive recently listed on the Singaporean stock exchange.
Strategic relationships continue to be developed with the vehicle industry, the electricity sector, public parking organisations, government entities and EV users.
Glossary of Terms

BEV

c/KWh

CAENZ

CCC

CSIRO

CYC

EECA

ENA

ETS

EV

FCV

HEV

ICEV

IEA

MED

MfE

MoT

MW

PHEV

RUC

V2G

VIN

Battery Electric Vehicle

Cents per kilowatt hour

New Zealand Centre for Advanced Engineering

The British Committee on Climate Change 2009 and 2011

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia's national science agency)

Charge Your Car, ONE Northeast England web application

Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority

Electricity Network Association

Emissions Trading Scheme

Electric Vehicle (used as a generic term to refer to BEVs and PHEVs)

Fuel Cell Vehicle

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (eg current Toyota Prius)

Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle or ICE (refers to petrol & diesel vehicles)

International Energy Agency

Ministry of Economic Development

Ministry for the Environment

Ministry of Transport

Megawatt

Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Road User Charge (EVs exempt til 2013)

Vehicle to Grid

Vehicle Identification Number